Blood Lead Levels and Mortality
Lustberg M, Silbergeld E.
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 660 W Redwood St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Despite declines in blood lead levels during the past 20 years, lead exposure continues to be a public health concern.
Studies have linked lead exposure with increased risk for diverse health outcomes. Few studies have evaluated the association of lead exposure and mortality in the general population.
METHODS: To evaluate the association of lead exposure and mortality in the United States, we used the recently released mortality follow-up data for participants of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national cross-sectional survey of the general population conducted from 1976 to 1980.
Survey participants aged 30 to 74 years with blood lead measurements were followed up through December 31, 1992 (n = 4292).
RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with baseline blood lead levels of 20 to 29 microg/dL (1.0-1.4 micromol/L) had 46% increased all-cause mortality (rate ratio [RR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.86), 39% increased circulatory mortality (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.91), and 68% increased cancer mortality (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.78) compared with those with blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL (<0.5 micromol/L).
All-cause mortality for those with blood lead levels of 10 to 19 microg/dL (0.5-0.9 micromol/L) was intermediately increased and not statistically significant (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.90-1.52).
CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with blood lead levels of 20 to 29 micro g/dL in 1976 to 1980 (15% of the US population at that time) experienced significantly increased all-cause, circulatory, and cardiovascular mortality from 1976 through 1992.
Thus, we strongly encourage efforts to reduce lead exposure for occupationally exposed workers and the 1.7 million Americans with blood lead levels of at least 20 micro g/dL (> or = 1.0 micromol/L).
ACC Cardio Extra Strength 4 fl oz | Results RNA - A unique dietary supplement for cardiovascular health.*
ACM Metabo 4 fl oz | Results RNA - unique biologic formulated to enhance metabolic and thyroid function at the cellular level, boosting energy, speeding metabolism and inducing healthy, consistent weight loss*(hide)
ACN Neuro Extra Strength 2 fl oz | Results RNA - ACN neuro supports psychomotor functions, mental clarity and enhances mood.*(hide)
ACN Neuro Extra Strength 4 fl oz | Results RNA - ACN neuro supports psychomotor functions, mental clarity and enhances mood.*(hide)
ACZ Nano Advanced Cellular Zeolite Extra Strength 2 oz | Results RNA - Advanced Cellular Zeolite ACZ - the leading oral detoxifier prescribed today and the only nanomized zeolite with systemic absorption and proven effectiveness.*(hide)
ACZ Nano Advanced Cellular Zeolite Extra Strength 4 oz | Results RNA - Advanced Cellular Zeolite ACZ - the leading oral detoxifier prescribed today and the only nanomized zeolite with systemic absorption and proven effectiveness.*(hide)
Clear-HM 180 caps | Bioclinic Naturals - provides advanced heavy metal detoxification support, supplying nutrients which increase glutathione levels, assist in heavy metal removal, improve antioxidant status and protect against cellular and hepatic damage*(hide)
Consultation with Dr. Forrest - Dr. Forrest, MA, MH, DC, is a licensed chiropractor in California. His is available for in-office visits and informational/educational phone/Skype consultations and Zyto and EVOX Biometric Body Scans. You are welcome to draw on his over 28 years of clinical experience.*(hide)
EcoNugenics Toxin Removal System - A comprehensive Detoxification System for the whole body.*
Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (HTMA | Analytical Research Labs - simply stated, is a screening test that measures the mineral content and mineral ratios of your hair. However, a hair tissue mineral analysis is much more than a test for minerals.*(hide)
KeLATOX EDTA Suppositories (900mg - 30ct) is a rectal, time released EDTA suppository.*
MELISA Metals Profiles - State-of-the-art metals testing. These profiles are suggested for patients with symptoms of hypersensitivity to metal, and those who have had possible immunological responses to: dental amalgams and implants, orthopedic and electrical implants, cosmetics and jewelry, foods and cookware, occupational exposure, reaction to vaccinations, preservatives or thimerosal.*(hide)
Metal Detox Program ULTRA - Our most comprehensive, highly effective program for removing toxic metals from the body. For those serious about getting the lead out!*(hide)
Total Body Detox Extra Strength - 2 oz - ACZ & ACS | Results RNA - Eliminate Heavy Metals & Microbes with advanced easy to use sprays of silver and zeolite.*(hide)
Total Body Detox Extra Strength - 4 oz ACZ NANO & ACS 200 - Eliminate Heavy Metals & Microbes with advanced easy to use sprays of silver and zeolite.*(hide)
Toxic Element Clearance ProfileUrine | Genova Diagnostics - Measures urinary excretion of 20 toxic metals. This test should be implemented when only a focused evaluation of exposure to toxic metals is desired.*(hide)
Ultimate Body Detox 4 fl oz | Results RNA - Unparalleled immune system support, detoxification and rejuvenation with three powerful products*(hide)
Ultimate Body Detox Extra Strength 2 oz - ACZ, ACS, ACG | Results RNA - Cleanse your body of pathogens, toxins and free radicals and feel renewed*(hide)
Ultimate Lyme Support System Extra Strength 2 oz | Results RNA - Unparalleled immune system support, detoxification, rejuvenation and neurological healing.*(hide)
Ultimate Lyme Support System Extra Strength 4 oz | Results RNA - Unparalleled immune system support, detoxification, rejuvenation and neurological healing.(hide)
Neo40 Professional Nitric Oxide Booster
- • Neo 40 helps improve circulation and the cardiovascular system
- • NEO 40 raises Nitric Oxide
- • ED is caused by low Nitric Oxide
- • Now available in 30 or 60 lozenges
- • NEW Proessional Strength version available
|Add to cart|